The investigations performed in USSR at the beginning of 1960 have shown that close grouping of shots from submachine gun is determined mainly by cartridge impulse and weapon feedback energy. It has been established that the most real way to increase firing efficiency of the personal weapon can be fielding new cartridge with reduced impulse and development of the following generation submachine gun corresponding this cartridge.
Creation efforts of 5.45mm submachine gun cartridges were carried out at "Central scientific research institute of precise mechanical engineering together with Design Bureau Of Automatic Lines, Tula Cartridge Works and Ministry of Defence organizations.
Development of 5.45 mm cartridges was carried out with a glance of the international humanitarian right norms. Under such conditions have been provided sufficient bullet stability at trajectory and high damaging action.
The increasing of muzzle velocity bullet from 725 m/s (AKM) up to 900 m/s (AK74) has led to significant improvement of grazing fire (direct shot range increasing) from new weapon. Smaller flight lime for the same range promoted firing mistakes reduction at shooting on the moving targets and at a lateral wind. The smaller feedback impulse has provided the best close grouping of shots by automatic fire. All this has provided increasing target hit probability. Reduction of cartridge weight has allowed increasing manpack ammunition in 1.5 times at the same weight.
5.45 mm cartridge with ordinary (steel core) and tracing bullet has been accepted on arms simultaneously with automatic device AK74 at 1974. Blank and dummy cartridges have been developed in addition to live cartridges. Perfection of 5.45mm cartridge was spent from 1990 up to 2010 at direction of its penetrative action Increase (for a steel core bullet) and also increase of tracing range and tracer ignition delay (for tracer cartridges).
All the Russian 5.45 mm submachine gun cartridges are produced with the steel cartridge case covered by green colors lacquer.
Cartridge with urinary bullet 5.45 PS (7N6)
5.45 mm cartridge with ordinary bullet 5.45 PS is intended for defeat of military personnel located openly or behind barriers punched out by bullet, weapon means and unarmoured technical equipment. Weight of a bullet is 3.4g. Cartridges 5.45 PS have no distinctive painting.
5.45 PS cartridge is practically equivalent 7.62mm cartridge 1943 model with bullet PS on breakdown ability but essentially surpasses it on a direct shot range.
The first cartridge modernization has been undertaken at 1987 and has led to replacement of bullet core material which has started to produce from strong marks of steel with the subsequent thermal processing. The geometrical sizes and a bullet design have remained invariable. The bullet has not distinctive painting.
A bullet cartridge 5.45 PS (7N6)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,5
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,4
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 890
Cartridge with heightened breakdown bullet 5.45 PP (7N10)
At the beginning of 1990 the second modernization of the cartridge has been caused by further flak jacket perfection. Usage of titanic alloys armour plate for flak jacket has led to sharp breakdown reduction of ail bullets types of a cartridge 5.45PS including heat-strengthened core bullet.
At 1992 experts of Barnaul Cartridge Plant had been completed modernization of 5.45mm cartridge with a heightened breakdown bullet (5.45 PP). The new bullet differs from a cartridge bullet 5.45 PS by core design. The weight of a bullet has been a little bit increased and has made 3.6g. 5.45 cartridges PP have not distinctive painting.
The new cartridge bullet has provided substantial increase breakdown of personal armoured protective equipment. Cartridges bullets 5.45PP and 5.45PS have practically identical ballistic characteristics and can be applied in all samples of weapon under 5.45mm cartridge.
A bullet cartridge 5.45 PP (7N10)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,7
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,6
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 880
Cartridge with armor-piercing bullet - 5.45 BP (7N22)
Cartridge with armor-piercing bullet - 5.45 BS (7N24)
The further development of personal armoured protective equipment has demanded increasing bullets breakdown of submachine gun cartridges. At the end of 1990 5.45 mm cartridge with armour piercing bullet 5.45 BP has been created at Barnaul Cartridge Plant and accepted on arms at 2002.
More perfect form of core, its greater weight, hardness and durability has provided increase bullets breakdown action on firm barrier. The weight of a bullet has made 3.7 g. The bullet head part as black color.
Shooting by cartridges with armour piercing bullet does not lead to heightened deterioration of bore. One more cartridge with armour piercing bullet Decame 5.45 mm cartridge with armour percing core bullet 5.45 BS and it was also accepted on arms at 2002. This cartridge has been developed at TSNIITOCHMASH. Manufacture of the cartridge was mastered by Federal public enterprise "Amusky patron factory "Vympel".
The high density of a core material has increased weight of a bullet up to 4.2 g. Increasing weight of a bullet. in turn, has led to some reduction of its muzzle vtlocity up to 840m/S- Bullets of a cartridge 5.45BS have no distinctive panting.
Up to 2007 the cartridge with bullet BS has been modernized by joint efforts of TSNIITOCHMASH and FPE APF "Vympel". The core has undergone again to modernization. Breakdown of personal armoured protection means has been considerably increased as a result of the lead works. The requirement on trajectory assocsalsvsly with other 5.45mm submachine gun cartridges is provided by cartridges with armour piercing bullet.
Armor-piercing bullets ammo 5.45 BP (7N22) and 5.45 BS (7N24)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,8 / 11,2
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,7 / 4,1
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 880 / 840
Cartridge with bullet trassiruyuey 5.45 TM (7T3M)
The cartridge with tracer bullet 5.45 T has been developed at the same time as a cartridge 5.45 PS at TSNIITOCHMASH and accepted on arms. Tracer leaves a bright shone trace of red color on range up to 800m well visible both day and night. The bullet is capable to ignite inflammable subjects at hit in its.
At the end of 1990 when modernization of tracer cartridges was spent the cartridge 5.45 T has been advanced also. Completion of tracer was spent by TSNIITOCHMASH. The new cartridge has received the name 5.45 mm cartridge with advanced tracer bullet (5.45 TM). It has been accepted on arms at 2002. Modernization has allowed increasing range of tracing up to 850 m and has provided a delay of composition tracer ignition up to 50-120 m from muzzle. Such delay of tracer ignition allows camouflaging a rifleman position better.
The bullet head part of ail tracer cartridges is painted in green color.
The further modernization of cartridges was spent with the purpose to increase its breakdown. The cartridges with bullets BT-03 and BT-05 have been developed at TSNIITOCHMASH. Simultaneously the cartridge 7BT4 has been created at Open Society В«Koshkin DBALВ».
A bullet cartridge 5.45 TM (7T31)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,3 / 10,3
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,2 / 3,2
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 890 / 890
Range of tracing, m: 800 / 850
Cartridges with armour piercing tracer bullet 5.45 BT (7BT4)
5.45 mm cartridge with armour piercing tracer bullet 5.45 BT has been developed at the end of the first decade of 2000 at Design office of automatic transfer lines for partial tracer cartridges replacement because lead cores of the cartridge do not provide flak jacket breakdown. Steel heat-strengthened core is used in a new cartridge instead of lead core. It has provided increase breakdown of personal armoured protective equipment. A bullet head part is green color.
A bullet cartridge 5,45 BT(7BT4)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,2
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,1
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 900
Cartridge with reduced speed bullet 5.45 US (7U1)
Small arms-grenade 3auncher complex "Canareika" consisting of 5.45 mm submachine gun AKSB74U with the device for silent and flame-free firing PBS-4 and also a cartridge win sub song initial speed has been created at the end of 1970 by TSNIITOCHMASH for the hidden military personnel defeat unprotected by personal armoured protective equipment. The cartridge of the complex has received the name 5.45mm cartridge with reduced speed bullet 5.46 US.
The bullet of cartridge 5.45 US differs from all other 5.45 mm submachine gun live cartridges seemingly. The leading part of a bullet has step transition to ogive and its muzzle velocity is about 300m/s. The bullet has weight 5.1 g for maintenance of necessary damaging action. A bullet head part is black with a green rib.
A bullet cartridge 5.45 US (7U1)
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,9
Weight of a bullet, g: 5,1
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 300
Cartridge will lowered ricochet ability belief 5.45 PRS
Submachine gun and machine gun complex of 5.45 mm caliber were created, first of all, for battle tasks. Such battle is conducted on rather large distances. However shooting on small distances by high-speed steel core bullets leads to significant increase of dangerous ricochets opportunity from concrete and brick walls of structures and asphalt during battle in settlements.
For this reason the 5.45 mm cartridge with lowered ricochet ability bullet 5.45 PRS have been created at the beginning of 2000 by experts. The Special equipment and communication" and CJSC "Barnaul Cartridge Plant" under Ministry of Interior of Russia order. It is possible to consider this cartridge as modernized variant of 5.45 PS cartridge. The bullet core is made completely from lead. Such design has provided increase of close grouping of shots and uniform deformation of bullet at a meeting with firm barrier has led to reduction of ricochet probability.
The bullet has no distinctive painting but branding В «PRSВ» in addition to factory number and manufacturing year is available on head-rounding of cartridge case.
Donets cartridge case 5.45 PRS
A bullet cartridge 5.45 PRS
Weight of a cartridge, g: 10,9
Weight of a bullet, g: 3,85
Muzzle velocity, m/s: 860
Blank cartridges 5.45 blank 7H3 (7H3M)
Blank cartridges 5.45
The blank cartridge has been developed at 1974-75 at TSNII TOCHMASH for imitation during training shooting from AK-74, manual machine guns RPK74 and its modifications and also for salutes firing. The blank cartridge ensures mobile parts functioning of weapon automatic together with bushing for the blank shooting screwed on chase of submachine gun or light machine gun.
The bullet simulator made from white color polymeric material is used in a blank cartridge instead of real bullet. There is a cavity inside of the bullet simulator owing to which under influence of gunpowder gases escape from bore it collapses.
The shot is accompanied by distinctive sound and flame.
Weight of a cartridge is 7 g.
The new blank cartridge has been developed to the middle of 2000 under the classical scheme with extended muzzle of a cartridge case pressed out by star and covered by sealing lacquer layer. The shot also is accompanied by sound and flame flash.
A bullet cartridge 5.45 blank 7H3 (7H3M)
Dummy cartridge 5.45 dummy cartridge (7X4)
Dummy cartridges are used for training technique of 5.45 mm caliber submachine gun and light machine gun charging and magazines equipping. Dummy cartridge does not contain a propelling powder and has inefficient percussion cap fuse. Its cartridge case has four longitudinal flutes for cartridge identification.