Udar (TSNII TOCHMASH) revolver
In 1990 the Klimovsk-based TSNIITOCHMASH Institute received the design specification for a new revolver from the iterior Ministry's Research Institute for Special Equipment The new revolver was named Udar (not to be confused with the UDAR aerosol dispenser).
The prototype of the new revolver made its appearance in 1993. TSNIITOCHMASH also developed a family of 12.3 mm cartridges. The caliber was not a random choice — the necessity to develop a cartridge on short notice and at minimum costs made designers lake a look at mature metal 32-gauge shotgun cartridges for smoothbore hunting guns (corresponds to the bore diameter of 12,5 ± 0,2 mm). The brass case was filled with a pistol powder charge and fitted with the KV-26 percussion cap of the same type as that of the 9x18 PM pistol cartridge. The large caliber enabled the designers to develop the following types of cartridges:
— a cartridge with a high-stopping-power service bullet retaining 49 joules of energy at a range of 25 m;
— a cartridge with an armor-piercing bullet. The bullet combines high penetration on hitting a hard obstacle (door, glass, body armor) with stopping power and a Sow probability of ricochet. The bullet penetrates a 5 mm steel plate at a range of 25 m;
— a short cartridge with steel shots;
— a pyroliquid cartridge containing 2,5 cm? of irritant liquid, sealed with a plastic plug. The cartridge is effective at a range of up to five meters. The irritant liquid turns into aerosol already in the air, which reduces the possibility of the shooter being enshrouded in the aerosol cloud, as compared to firing an ordinary gas cartridge;
— a flash-and-bang cartridge giving off a flash of 100,000 candelas and a powerful bang, the combination of which is intended to disorient the enemy and disrupt his coordination;
— a cartridge with a non-lethal rubber ball bullet;
— a cartridge with a paintball.
The service bullet seats deeply in the case, which makes the cartridge similar to the Nagant round, although the Ud-ar cylinder does not embrace the barrel, and the protruding cartridge case neck doesn't provide sealing of a clearance between the cylinder chamber and cartridge chamber Such deep seating of the bullet, has imposed tougher requirements on its seating accuracy. The rubber bullet and the paintball cartridges are designed to be fired from the UdarT training revolver.
The revolver itself features quite a traditional design — a solid frame, an external hammer with a thumbpiece, a barrel lug for the locking bolt, and comfortable molded plastic grip plates. The classical shape of the frame is only interrupted by the front edge of the trigger guard, designed for two-handed firing. There are no attachments for any muzzle-mounted devices. The main feature of the revolver is its removable five-round cylinder made integral with the locking bolt. The cylinder is hinged to the frame, with the release catches mounted on both sides of the frame. Once the catch is released, the cylinder can be removed to the left and replaced with a new one. This design feature requires complete cylinder interchangeability The cylinder loaded with ball cartridges weighs 380 g, with non-lethal rounds — slightly less.
The trigger assembly is both double-action and single-action. The iron sights are designed for a range of up to 50 m, but the most effective range of fire is 25 m. The slanted rear edge of the foresight blends into the barrel rib. A recess in the grip bottom accommodates a recessed eye for a safety strap or cord.
The grip and the balance are quite comfortable. However, like with any other powerful revolver, a trained hand is needed to fire the Udar. The Udar boasts a 1.5-fold greater accuracy of ball-cartridge fire than the Makarov PM pistol. A single plastic bullet guarantees a hit on a man-sized target at a range of 15 m, while three plastic bullets will hit the same target at a range of five meters.
The Udar revolver was intended for equipping various uniformed services, from a sentry up to a special agent.