In 1995 the KBP Tula Instrument-making Design Bureau guided by VP Gryazev revealed the 9 mm VSK-94 "noiseless" automatic sniper rifle developed on the basis of the 9A-91 assault rifle. The rifle can fire the SP5, SP6 and. PAB-9 rounds. The PAB-9 bullet can penetrate 8 mm steel plate at a range of 100 m. The VSK-94 system was adopted by various law enforcement agencies as a weapon for concealed engagement of live targets, including those wearing individual armour, and non-armoured targets at a range up to 400 m. The VSK-94 was adopted for service in the armed forces in 2002.
The weapon is gas-operated with a long-stroke gas piston rigidly attached to the bolt carrier. The gas chamber is elongated to the front from the gas discharge port in the barrel to make the piston rod of required length. The barrel bore is locked by a rotating bolt with four locking lugs. The bolt carrier has a collapsible reloading handle.
The hammer-type firing mechanism enables semi-automatic (single-shot) and full-automatic (bursts) firing. The non-automatic lever-type safety selector is mounted on the left and produces a barely audible click (if compared, for instance, with the AKM or SVD). When activated, the safety lever blocks the slot and prevents passing of the reloading handle.
Rounds are fed from a detachable two-row staggered box-type magazine. Twenty and ten-round magazines can be employed in the latter case weapon balance is affected to a lesser extent while ammunition is spent. Declared dispersion of fire at a range of 100 m does not exceed 10 cm en diameter, which means that the accuracy of fire is a little inferior to that of the more expensive VSS rifle.
Transformation of the 9A-91 assault rifle into a noiseless sniper rifle involved installation of a detachable silencer (PBS) and a removable frame-type unfolding plastic buttstock with rubber shock absorber, integrated with the pistol grip. The silencer considerably reduces shot noise and entirely eliminates muzzle flash allowing concealed target engagement at ranges up to 400 m. Absence of muzzle flash, besides reducing shot revealing signature, improves operation of night sights. The silencer design does not contain replaceable parts. In close combat the VSK-94 system can be employed as an assault rifle as well.
Standard side rail on the receiver allows mounting various sights, such as the PK3-07 daytime sight and a KBP-designed night sight (both use aiming mark as a red dot). Usage of the luminous red dot reduces re-targeting time when firing with the aiming mark transfer. After the battery has been discharged or has failed, the red dot in the PKS-07 sight is not extinguished but: turns black, and the sight remains operable. The PKS-07 sight has a 7-power magnification and a 3-degree field of view with an elliptical range-finder within the field of view – as fast range-finding is vital for low-speed bullet weapons. The PKN-OZM night sight is built on the 2nd generation electro-optical image intensifier allowing aimed fire at a range up to 200 m in the moonless cloudy night and up to 350 m in the moonlight An infrared illuminator is provided to improve visibility. The VSK-94 system has been also demonstrated with the FSO-1-1 optical daytime sight. The mechanical sight has range settings for firing at 100, 200, 300 and 400 m. Similar to the VSS rifle, the VSK-94 system is easily disassembled for carrying in a special case. The rifle assembly takes about one minute.