Active interest in large-calibre sniper rifles was provoked by desire, on the one hand, to increase effective range of fire against five targets at a large range, including those wearing personal armour protection kits, and, on the other hand, to enable snipers to defeat pin-point enemy targets (such as hardened fire emplacements, small-size stationary weapon systems mobile missile systems, radars, satellite communication antennas, light armoured vehicles, transportation facilities. and so on). Powerful cartridges used en large-calibre machine guns formed the basis for the development of these rifles. Thus appeared a new type of firearm systems.
Designers E. V. Zhuravlev M. Yu. Kuchm, V. I. Negrulenko and Yu. N. Ovchinnjkov developed the 12.7 mm SVN-98 rifle (sniper rifle of Negrulenko mod. 1998) in the bullpup configuration. Subsequently the rifle was designated KSVK (Kbvrov large-calibre sniper rifle) and, later on re-designated ASVK (large-calibre army sniper rifle).
The ASVK rifle is a non-automatic magazine-fed large-calibre firearm. The rifle features a free-floating cantilever barrel manufactured by the radial cold hammer forging method, and mounted so that it contacts no other rifle components. The barrel is provided with an efficient active-reactive muzzle brake or a device combining functions of a muzzle brake and a flash trap. The barrel bore is Socked by a sliding longitudinally, rotating bolt with the reloading handle positioned to the right before the trigger guard. The heavy free-floating barrel, rigid receiver and manual reloading method contribute to improved accuracy of fire The opening for spent cases ejection is closed in the marching position by spring-loaded lid. The safety lever situated on the right serves also as a holder of the receiver opening lid.
The shoulder support has an elastic dense-rubber shock absorber, and a pad in the frond end of the shoulder support is used by shooter as a rest for has left hand when firing. A non-adjustable cheek piece is mounted on the receiver The bipod is hinged on the longitudinal bar (rod) underneath the barrel and is folded forward under barrel in the marching position.
The rifle is fitted with the standard side mounting rail and can accept various optical and night sights. There are also flip-up mechanical sights. The carrying handle is located near the rifle centre of gravity.
Rounds are fed from a detachable box magazine.
The ASVK rifle is designed to defeat light armoured and non-armoured enemy weapons and equipment at ranges up to 1,000 m and personnel in body armour protection kits at ranges up to 1.500 m. V. N. Dvoryaninov from the FSUE "TSNIITOCHMASH Research Institute" in cooperation with Ulyanovsk Cartridge Plant developed the 12.7 mm SN high-accuracy enhanced armour-piercing round. The round has a full jacketed bullet 'with steel and lead cores. The cartridge is designed to the standard size 12.7x107 mm.
KBP lula instrument-making design bureau developed its own variants of 12 7x107 rounds: 12.7 SPTs round with whole bronze bullet and 12.7 SPB round with steel core in bronze jacket.