In the early 2000s the Tula-based Instrument Design Bureau developed the GM-94 magazine grenade launcher at a special request of the Russian Ministry of Interior. The grenade launcher with a series of VGM-93 rounds of various purposes was fielded in 2005.
The new grenade launcher discharges a wide range of tasks, including creation of unbearable conditions in the open terrain and inside buildings; rendering human targets ineffective in populated areas and inside fortifications and vehicles; rendering thin-skin vehicles out of order; and temporary neutralisation of offenders without inflicting severe injuries on them or maiming them.
The grenade launcher is a slide-action weapon fed from a tubular magazine above the barrel. The grenade launcher is reloaded manually by sliding the barrel with the fore-end forward and then rearward. A spent case is ejected downward so as not to harm anyone around. The double-action trigger assembly ensures a high combat readiness of the weapon and a safe handling of the loaded grenade launcher.
The design ensures a high reliability of the weapon and enables it to fire a wide scope of ammunition with various weights and velocities. At the same time the GM-94 features a high effective rage of fire and minimal giveaway factors (report and flash).
The ammunition load includes thermobaric, tear-gas, shock-effect and practice grenades.
The GM-93.100 thermobaric round kills, human targets within a radius of three metres from the explosion, destroys thin-skin vehicles, busts wooden doors padded with steel sheets, and breaks holes in 10-12 cm thick brick walls. The grenade creates a limited killing zone without producing hazardous fragments.
The GM-93.200 irritant-gas grenade is designed to neutralise offenders temporarily. The “spinning” grenade, filed with 66 grams of CS irritant gas, is capable of creating unbearable conditions for people without gas masks in the open terrain within an area of about 100 m2 and inside rooms of up to 300 m3.
The GM-93.600 round with a flexible baton is also designed to temporarily neutralise a criminal at a range of 40 to 120 m. At the same time it inflicts the minimal damage on the offender.